Zusanli - ST 36

Historical Profile and Modern Clinical Applications

ST 36 is an acupuncture point with a long well-documented history and a multitude of clinical actions. This course traces the historical profile of the indications of ST 36 and compares them with modern usage and insights from mechanism research.

John McDonald
John McDonald

Course Overview

ST 36 is the first acupuncture point mentioned in Ma Danyang's 12 Heavenly Star Points Song, as well as the Four Dominant Points Song and the Song of 11 Points Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces.


This course traces the indications of ST 36 from the Ling Shu through the various dynasties to the Ming Dynasty Odes and Songs, noting consistencies and novel usages. This historical profile is then compared to modern usage drawing from the consensus of 10 modern acupuncture texts from different parts of China, as well as from Korea, Japan, Vietnam, France and USA.


The physiological actions of ST 36 as shown in modern research studies are also explored.


This course is a comprehensive deep dive into one of the most famous of acupuncture points.


  • To have a deeper understanding of how historical indications for ST 36 have developed through the dynasties and how they have contributed to modern textbook indications.

  • To examine the historical indications of ST 36 in detail by clinical categories (eg: Gastrointestinal, urinary, etc) and compare and contrast these historical indications with modern textbook indications.

  • To explore the indications for ST 36 in 9 famous acupuncture Odes and Songs as well as the Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Zhen Jiu Da Cheng) and Explanations of Channels and Points (Jing Xue Jie).

  • To review the modern physiological research literature on the physiological actions of ST 36 on gastric acidity, GIT motility, nausea and vomiting, bile function, immune function and anti-inflammatory actions.


  • 0 hrs - 30 min

    Point location of ST 36 and Four Dominant Points Song and Ma Danyang's 12 Heavenly Star Points Song will be explored. Indications for ST 36 in Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and Explanation of Channels and Points will be examined.

  • 30 min - 1 hrs

    Historical indications by clinical category will be examined including indications in 6 Ming Dynasty Odes and Songs. Historical indications will be compared and contrasted with modern indications compiled from 10 modern texts.

  • 1 hrs - 1.5 hrs

    Research on physiological actions of ST 36 will be reviewed: gastric acidity and motility, intestinal motility, nausea/vomiting, bile function, humoral mucosal immunity, anti-inflammatory actions. Historical vs modern indications will be summarised.


John McDonald

Since 1971 Dr John McDonald, PhD has been a lecturer, Dean, Course Assessor and Degree Monitor for New Zealand Qualifications Authority, researcher, speaker, mentor and peer reviewer. John is author of Acupuncture Point Dynamics (3 volumes), Zang Fu Syndromes and The Acupuncture Evidence Project.


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  • Unlimited Access & CEUS

    You will have unlimited access to this course for as long as it is on Net of Knowledge, so that you can keep reviewing and learning from it over the years.

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    Please note we do not offer refunds for our recorded online courses/webinars.

  • Note

    This recording is available in an online format only; you will not receive a DVD or physical copy of the recording – it is only available to watch as a course to watch on the internet through your online account.


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More Details
  • CEUs:

    Approved By: California [Until 2025/02/13]* (1.5), Standard Certificate (1.5), NCCAOM (1.5), Florida (1.5)

  • Language: English

  • Course Type: Recorded Webinar

  • Course Length: 1.5 h

  • Course Notes: Notes are provided with this course.

  • Access Period: Lifetime


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