Dietary & Nutritional Guidelines from a TCM Perspective

Article written by Jake Schmalzriedt, DOM. Re-published here with permission from Golden Flower Chinese Herbs.

Proper nutrition is essential for good health and a rich life, and is an important part of Oriental Medicine (OM), though often overlooked. At its core, the purpose of food is to nourish the body and maintain health and vitality. It is preventative medicine. The majority of today’s illnesses are chronic and entirely preventable. Roughly 75% of healthcare spending goes to treating preventable diseases and about ½ of the adult population in the United States have chronic health conditions. Proper nutrition in the form of a lifestyle diet should be key whether promoting well-being or when treating disharmonies in the body.

Nutritional therapy is often quite effective at treating common pathologies based on an OM diagnosis like qi deficiency or blood deficiency, but sometimes nutritional therapy may not be enough. This is often seen in diagnoses like qi stagnation or blood stasis. Nutritional therapy can, however, be an excellent supplemental therapy used in conjunction with other OM modalities like acupuncture or herbs. The nutritional principles discussed in this pamphlet can be applied to any type of cuisine or style of cooking.

This guide is intended to be used to help you & your patients develop healthy eating habits and begin the journey to a healthy lifestyle. It is important to note that no one diet is good for everyone. These recommendations are guidelines, not rules, and are used to aid in health and well-being, but may need to be modified to best suit individual needs and requirements. It is best to work with your practitioner, who is able to accurately diagnose and suggest dietary advice based on the presenting OM pattern or diagnosis.


General Eating Habits  Foods the Should be Avoided
  • Eat in a calm and relaxed atmosphere and do not rush your meal
  • Avoid intense interactions at meal time, including television and reading
  • Chewing food thoroughly supports spleen qi
  • Don’t eat meals late at night
  • Avoid overconsumtion and excessive fasting
Raw, cold food, and iced beverages
Excessive dairy
Oily, greasy, and fried foods
Refined sugar and limit overly sweet foods
like fruit
Refined carbohydrates
Excessive alcohol intake
Excessive meat consumption

Daily Dietary Guidelines

Nutrition for the Kidney

A good diet protects and supports the kidney and its ability to function properly. Kidney is the foundation of yin and yang. A proper diet enables the Kidney to support and influence the yin and yang of the entire body, with yin energy nurturing, supporting, and moistening the body and yang energy warming, energizing, and moving the body. Kidney yang is the root of yang, providing energy and warmth for the entire body, enabling proper function. As the kidney dislikes cold, energetically cold foods depletes kidney yang and blocks its ability to warm the whole body yang. More specific to the digestive process the kidney yang can be seen in the digestive process as digestive fire. When the digestive fire is healthy and strong food is effectively transformed into qi and blood. If the digestive fire is weak it cannot provide enough warmth and energy to the digestive process, resulting in diarrhea, bloating, poor appetite, dull abdominal pain.

The Kidney is the source of life, or original qi, and is often called the “Root of Life” as it stores and controls the jing, the essence of our physical body. Jing is composed of prenatal jing that is inherited from the parents and stored in the kidneys and postnatal or acquired jing in the form of qi and nourishment is derived from food via the spleen and stomach and from air via the lungs. This nourishing essence supports the whole body with the surplus being stored in the kidney. Prenatal jing cannot be replaced or replenished, however it can be conserved through proper diet and lifestyle with the postnatal jing nurturing and supporting the prenatal jing. In cases of congenital insufficiency or constitutional weakness derived from poor prenatal jing, it is very important for the body to be supported and supplemented as much as possible by the postnatal jing.

Cooking foods longer at lower temps, like stews and bone broths, can be particularly beneficial for kidney support. Avoid raw and cold foods and drinks or ice water. Minimize eating raw foods, like salads especially in the winter.

Recommended Foods to Support the Kidney Avoid:
bone broths
Celtic sea salt or Real salt: helps with adrenal health but use in moderation
lobster, smoked fish, oysters, salmon, shrimp, tuna
black sesame seeds, chestnuts, walnuts
lentils, millet, oats, quinoa
sugar, artificial sweeteners
coffee, alcohol
highly processed foods
excessive intake of salt, table salt*Overeating
*Eating late at night


Beneficial Foods for Kidney Disharmonies

Kidney Qi & Kidney Yang Deficiency Kidney Yin Deficiency
Incorporate foods with strengthening and warming action, such as:
cabbage, chives, fennel, leeks, onions, potato,
radish, scallions, sweet potato, yam
cherries, grapes, mulberry
black beans, lentils
chicken, duck, goat, lamb, pork, venison
lobster, oysters, mussels, smoked fish, salmon,
shrimp, trout, tuna
walnuts, chestnuts, pistachio, lotus seeds,
sesame seeds
buckwheat, oats, quinoa, corn
ginger, garlic, black pepper, cinnamon, cloves,
chive, basil
spiced tea, yogi tea

Foods to avoid:

thermally cold or cool foods, raw foods, ice water
juices like orange juice or tropical fruit juice
sour milk products
excess liquid consumption

Incorporate foods with actions to cool, moisten, and build yin and body fluids (jin ye), such as:
asparagus, cabbage, carrots, cucumber, kelp,
blackberry, blueberry, cantaloupe, grapes, pears,
raspberry, strawberry, watermelon
black sesame seeds, kidney beans, mung beans,
string beans, sunflower seeds
duck, eggs, pork
abalone, carp, clam, crab, eel, octopus, oysters,
perch, scallop, sardine
butter, cream, goat’s milk

Foods to avoid:

warming foods in general
coffee, alcohol, red wine, tobacco
excess black tea and green tea
acrid spices
table salt
hot spices: cinnamon, cloves, ginger

Kidney Jing Deficiency
Supplementing jing through nutritional therapy is not effective, however the foods listed above for kidney qi, yin, yang deficiency can be beneficial in helping support persons with kidney jing deficiency. Additionally, incorporate these foods that specifically preserve and protect jing:
abalone, bone broths, chicken, kidney, liver
cow and goat milk
mussels, oysters
sesame seeds, walnuts

Foods to avoid:

hot and spicy foods
acrid spices like garlic

Nutrition for the Liver

Nutrition can have a powerful effect on the liver and its ability to function properly. Often when discussing digestion and the liver the first thing that comes to mind is liver overacting on the spleen and stomach, impeding the digestive function and inhibiting the absorption of nutrients. Often what we do not pay attention to is the digestion of food by the spleen and stomach and how that plays an important role in providing the liver enough nourishment in the form of qi that was derived from food. If the liver does not get enough nourishment or not the right type of nourishment imbalance and disharmony in the liver will occur. Likewise proper nutrition can help resolve existing imbalances.

Nutritionally it is important to find a balance between getting enough energy and not taking in anything that will over excite, as this will exhaust the liver energy as well as the energy of the spleen and stomach. It is important to avoid stimulants including nicotine and caffeine. The emotion of anger is closely related to the liver, so alcohol is best in moderation or, for some, should be avoided completely. Some spicy and pungent food can be helpful in moderation as it can help to facilitate qi movement, as stagnation of qi is quite common with liver imbalances. However, too much of this can just as easily be a hindrance. It is also important to eliminate foods that congest the liver like saturated fats, hydrogenated fats, excess amounts of nuts, and highly processed foods. Eating habits can stagnate and congest the liver as well, so don’t skip meals, eat quickly, overeat, eat late, or eat when emotionally upset. Relax and enjoy the meal you prepared.


Recommended Foods to Support the Liver Avoid:
leafy greens, cruciferous vegetables, beets, carrots, chives
blueberries, goji berries, grapefruit, strawberries
eggs, liver, pork, venison (especially if there is deficiency)
crab, crayfish, lobster, mussels, oysters, shrimp, squid, trout, whitefish
flax, pine nuts, sesame
cayenne, garlic, onion, vinegar, turmeric (careful with heat signs)
olive oil
cod liver oil, krill oil (increases anti-inflammatory omega 3 fatty acids)
chrysanthemum tea, green tea, lemon or lime water
spicy, hot foods (in excess)
greasy, fatty, oily, fried foods
alcohol, coffee, caffeine
processed, refined foods


Beneficial Foods for Liver Disharmonies

Liver Qi Stagnation Liver Damp-Heat
Incorporate foods which have these actions:
Calming the Liver
celery, chinese leek, chives, garlic, radish, seaweed
lemon, lime, grapefruit, plums
crayfish, prawns, shrimp
black sesame
Moving Qi
kelp, kohlrabi, leeks, mustard greens
onion, radish
coriander, marjoram, turmeric
Use in moderation: chile, garlic, ginger, pepper,

Foods to avoid:

alcohol, coffee
food coloring, preservatives
overly spicy foods

Incorporate foods that clear heat and drain damp:
leafy greens like romaine lettuce, spinach
cruciferous vegetables: collards, kale
adzuki beans, mung beans
cod liver oil or krill oil

Foods to avoid:

sugar, fruits, juices
high carbohydrate foods, especially grains,
white potatoes, and all refined foods
greasy, fatty, oily, fried foods
hot and spicy foods
acrid spices like chile, garlic, ginger, pepper
alcohol, coffee
If damp-heat is complicated by candida avoid vinegar, yeast, and fermented foods as well

Liver Fire Liver Yin Deficiency
Incorporate foods with cooling and downbearing actions:
celery, cucumber, daikon, kelp, lettuce,
mung beans, water chestnuts, radish, spinach
bananas, plums, rhubarb, watermelon

Foods to avoid:

alcohol, coffee
fatty, oily foods

Foods to incorporate have actions to nourish yin:
celery, cucumber, mung beans, sauerkraut,
spinach, tomatoes
pears, plums
fermented dairy

Foods to avoid:

acrid spices like curry, cinnamon, garlic, ginger,
alcohol, coffee

Liver Yang Rising Liver Blood Deficiency
Incorporate foods that downbear, clear heat, and nourish yin:
celery, cucumber, mung beans
spinach, tomatoes
apples, lemons, mangos, mulberry fruit, rhubarb
chia seeds (beneficial for high cholesterol)
green tea, peppermint tea

Foods to avoid:

alcohol, coffee
fatty, oily foods

Incorporate foods that nourish liver blood:
broccoli, fennel, longan, spinach, tomatoes
red fruits and vegetables such as beets,
blackberries, cherries, dark grapes, plums,
strawberries, raspberries, red cabbage, yams
beef, duck, egg yolk, poultry, liver, rabbit
crab, eel, mussels, octopus, oysters
sesame, sunflower seeds
amaranth, rice

Foods to avoid:

bitter and acrid foods
coffee, alcohol, black tea, cocoa
acrid spices


Nutrition for the Heart

The heart rules the blood and blood vessels, and stores the shen (spirit). Nourishment of the heart brings a long healthy life. The heart governs blood and circulation. For a normal heartbeat, with a smooth and even rate and rhythm, regulating circulation, heart qi and blood must be abundant.

The heart houses the shen. When the shen is harmonious, the mind is acute and clear, the physical body is exuberant, and the spirit is calm and peaceful. When the shen is disturbed, restlessness, insomnia, poor memory, anxiety, and panic will be present. When the shen is deficient, joylessness and lusterlessness will prevail. The heart requires qi and yin to properly house and anchor the shen. Proper nutrition can support the blood and yin of the heart and support the shen. Calm the shen by avoiding energetically hot foods, like ginger, garlic, alcohol, and coffee. This heat can easily be aggravated by stress and anger. Damp and phlegm can also adversely impact the heart and shen. By removing damp forming foods, like dairy and sugar, from the diet it can help aid in proper heart function and a healthy shen. It is best to cook foods with high heat and a short cook time, and with light salt and spice.

There is a connection between the heart and stomach. The stomach divergent meridian goes to the heart and is why you see dreamed-disturbed sleep issues or insomnia after eating large meals or eating late at night. Take a look at the stomach as well as the heart when presented with sleep issues. The best ways to prevent these issues is to adjust eating habits; avoid overeating and eat smaller meals, don’t eat late at night, use spices like anise, ginger, or mint to aid in digestion, reduce stress and relax while eating. Additionally, short 18 to 24 hours fasts can be beneficial to relieve the food stagnation.

Recommended Foods to Calm the Shen Avoid:
celery, cucumber, lettuce, mushrooms
lemons, mulberries, schisandra berries
chia seeds, jujube seeds
brown rice, oats, whole wheat
cow and goat milk, ghee
basil, chamomile, dill
*A simple diet is best
*Light fasting (18-24 hours) brings clarity and calms the mind
spicy, rich foods
refined sugar, artificial sweeteners
highly processed foods
coffee, alcohol
*Eating late at night


Beneficial Foods for Heart Disharmonies

Heart Qi and Yang Deficiency Heart Fire
Incorporate strengthening and warming foods for heart qi and yang deficiency:
apples, cherry, longan
beef, lamb, pheasant
garbonzo beans, lentils
buckwheat, oats, rice
aniseed, chile, cinnamon

Foods to avoid:

cold raw foods
ice cream, ice drinks

Incorporate cool, bitter foods to clear heart fire:
salads, cabbage, celery, cucumber, dandelions,
tomatoes, watercress, water chestnut
apples, pears, rhubarb, watermelon

Foods to avoid:

warming foods
alcohol, coffee
acrid spices like chile, pepper and cinnamon

Heart Blood Deficiency Phlegm-Heat Missing the Heart
Incorporate food with neutral and warming actions:
cherries, longan, red grapes
beef, chicken, eggs, pheasant, oysters
aduki beans
rice, oats, wheat

Foods to avoid:

hot foods and dehydrating food
coffee, alcohol
acrid spices like chile, pepper, cinnamon

Incorporate cooling foods. It is also important to support spleen qi:
cabbage, celery, daikon, dandelion, radish, red
seaweed, watercress
grapefruit, lemons, tangerines
mung beans

Foods to avoid:

milk and dairy
eggs, red meats, peanuts
sugar, refined foods, white flour
cigarettes, coffee, alcohol

Heart Yin Deficiency Heart Blood Stagnation
Incorporate foods with neutral and cooling actions:
apples, peach, persimmon, red grapes
wheat (in moderation)
milk, cheese (preferably goat)
poppy seed, black sesame seed
green tea, coconut milk

Foods that support kidney yin also can be used to support heart yin

Foods to avoid:

hot foods and drying foods
coffee, alcohol, tobacco

Incorporate foods that move stagnation:
chives, leek, onion, radish, scallion, turnip
hawthorn berry, peach
crab, eggs, venison
alcohol, chili pepper, turmeric, vinegar

Foods to avoid:

cold and raw foods
greasy, fried foods
For heart / blood stagnation, nutrition therapy is often not enough and should be combined with acupuncture and herbal therapy


Nutrition for the Spleen & Stomach

The spleen and stomach are the most important organs to support with nutritional therapy, as they play pivotal roles in the digestive process. Disharmonies of the spleen and stomach often occur together and can generally be treated at the same time.

The spleen is in charge of nutrition and digestion. It is the source of acquired qi, creating energy from food and water. The spleen, along with the stomach, is responsible for the absorption, distribution, transformation, and transportation of that energy. The health of the spleen dictates how effectively nutrients are absorbed from food. When the spleen is functioning well, a person will exhibit dynamic energy, good appetite, and a healthy digestion. When there is dysfunction in the spleen, chronic fatigue and poor digestion symptoms like abdominal bloating, excess gas, diarrhea or loose stools, nausea, poor appetite, etc., will be present. People with disharmonies in this system must incorporate healthy eating habits into their life if they are to overcome their health concerns.

The spleen generally responds very well to dietary treatments. General foods that benefit the middle burner are mildly sweet foods like poultry, vegetables, and grains, however, overindulgence of sweet can be harmful to the spleen. Avoid sugar and excessive consumption of naturally sweet foods like honey and maple syrup. Cold foods contract and stagnate the middle burner and stops digestion, and are best avoided. Additionally, those without a strong middle burner often have low digestive fire and need to avoid those cold foods as they will perpetuate the condition, and alternatively eat more foods that are warming. Foods that are simple to prepare with a mild taste and mild seasoning are best. Make simple dishes prepared at a moderate temperature and cooking time. Don’t overeat or overindulge. Moderation is key. Meat stock, stock made from bones with the meat still on them, can be beneficial. Soups in general are advised, as they are easy to digest. Grains were beneficial at one point, but because of modern stressors, grains for most people with spleen disharmonies need to be limited.

Another main function of the spleen is to govern body fluids. If the spleen qi becomes deficient, the transportation and transformation function become impeded, resulting in damp-phlegm accumulation. Raw foods, cold foods and drinks, fruits, salads, dairy, and sugar cause and perpetuate damp conditions. In the case of spleen deficiency with damp, keep starchy carbohydrates low. Also pay extra attention to those foods on the avoid list.

The stomach has a close connection with the spleen and is very import to the digestive process. Its main function is the absorption of food, separating the pure, which goes to the spleen and lung, and turbid, which goes to the small intestine.

Dryness and heat can damage the stomach. Hot acrid foods like coffee and alcohol, and spices like curry, garlic, pepper, should be avoided with stomach pathologies. Take time while eating, eat regularly, eat warm meals, and don’t eat late at night.

Recommended Foods to Support the Spleen & Stomach Avoid:
cooked and fermented vegetables, brothy soups
cabbage, carrots, corn, onions, peas, string beans,
sweet potato, yams
apricots, apples, cantaloupe, dates, figs, grapes,
beef, chicken, duck, eggs, fish (bass, carp, herring,
mackerel, sardine), goat, goose, lamb, spleen, veal,
amaranth, brown rice, sweet rice
coriander, cumin, garlic, ginger, vinegar
Foods to avoid that weaken the spleen:
cold foods and drinks
raw foods like salads, and citrus fruits
dairy products
sugar and refined carbohydrates
Foods that weaken the stomach:
cold raw foods like salad, ice cream
hot spices
sugar and refined carbohydrates
fatty, greasy, oily foods


Beneficial Foods for Spleen & Stomach Disharmonies

Spleen Qi & Yang or Stomach Qi Deficiency Stomach Yin Deficiency
Incorporate foods that are slightly sweet and warming:
carrots, cabbage, pumpkins, winter squash,
turnip, onions, sweet potatoes, peas, yams
apples, apricots, peaches, plums, dates, figs,
raisins, cherries, grapes
poultry, beef, lamb, turkey, venison, liver, trout,
salmon, tuna, mackerel, halibut, shellfish
peanuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, sesame, walnuts
rice, sweet rice
cayenne, black pepper, ginger, garlic fennel,
cinnamon, aniseed, nutmeg

Foods to avoid:

raw, cold foods and drinks
sugar and other sweet foods, limit fruit intake
pineapples, oranges, watermelons, bananas
cucumber, tomatoes, salads
fruit juice, wheat beer

Incorporate foods that are mostly neutral and cooling:
asparagus, cucumber, cabbage, eggplant,
summer squash, watercress, water chestnut,
apples, bananas, honeydew, pears, tangerines
eggs, goose, poultry, pork, rabbit
barley, millet, wheat

Foods to avoid:

coffee, alcohol
broiled, grilled and barbecued foods

With Damp Accumulation Stomach Qi Deficiency with Cold Accumulation
Incorporate foods for spleen qi deficiency, with the addition of foods that dry dampness:
celery, lettuce, scallion, pumpkin, turnip
aduki beans
amaranth, rye

Foods to avoid:

raw, cold foods and drinks
wheat, grains in general, and starchy carbohydrates

This pattern is often accompanied with spleen yang deficiency. Incorporate foods that warm and nourish:
use dietary recommendations under spleen yang deficiency

Foods to avoid:

raw, cold foods and drinks

Stomach Fire
Incorporate foods that are cooling:
cucumber, mung beans, aduki beans, sprouts,
tomatoes, peas, spinach, celery
pears, banana, watermelon, honeydew melon,
kiwi, rhubarb
yogurt, tofu, soy

Foods to avoid:

warm and hot foods
coffee, alcohol
ginger, garlic, chili, curry
smoked and fatty foods


Nutrition for the Lung

Nutrition therapy can be used to prevent lung disharmonies as well as help treat existing conditions. The lungs are susceptible to deficiencies of qi and yin, and excess conditions of phlegm, dryness, wind-heat, wind-cold, and toxic-heat.

One of the most important functions of the lung is to govern qi and breathing. Supporting and strengthening the lung qi and yin through nutrition can be used to help with multiple aspects of the lung pathology.
1) Treating such symptoms as shortness of breath, dyspnea, weak voice, and weak breath.
2) Strengthening the exterior can help prevent external pathogenic invasions, like the common cold or allergies, or help resolve existing wind invasions.
3) Supporting proper lung function can help diffuse qi, moistening the body and preventing dryness. If the spleen is weak or over-taxed it can be the source of phlegm production. Instead of a fine mist, phlegm is sent to the lungs. If the lungs are unable to disseminate it throughout the body it ends up storing in the lung resulting in wheezing, dyspnea, shortness of breath, etc. Proper diet can help resolve chronic phlegm and prevent further accumulation.

To aid the lungs it is best to consume easy-to-digest foods that are fresh and lightly cooked, usually with less water and at lower temperatures. This helps increase the nutritional value and assimilation of food. By eating smaller meals at more frequent intervals over-taxation is prevented. Lung deficiency frequently draws on the kidney and spleen, and can deplete these organ systems as well, so foods that are beneficial to the spleen and kidney are often used to benefit lung. Conversely, in the case of lung pathology, remember to look at the spleen and kidney to see if either needs support as well.

Recommended Foods to Support the Lung Avoid:
cauliflower, leeks, horseradish, onions, radish, watercress
almonds, almond butter / milk
chili, curry, ginger, pepper
spiced teas like ginger tea and yogi tea
raw, cold foods like salads and fruits

Phlegm-forming foods and foods that can weaken the spleen, such as:
oily and fatty foods
cold foods and drinks


Beneficial Foods for Lung Disharmonies

Lung Qi Deficiency
Incorporate acrid, warm foods to supplement the lung qi:
asparagus, carrots, cauliflower,
daikon, leeks, onions, mushrooms,
mustard greens, olives, radish,
sweet potato, water chestnuts,
grapes, pears, peaches, tangerines
black beans, garbanzo beans
beef, chicken, duck, goose,
quail, rabbit, tuna
almonds, walnuts
oats, rice, sweet rice
garlic, ginger, thyme
Foods to avoid:
sweet food, refined sugar, citrus
cold foods like ice cream or
smoothies, ice water, salads
raw vegetables
dairy, tofu, wheat
fatty, oily, greasy foods
alcohol, coffee, cigarettes
Lung Phlegm-Damp Accumulation Lung Heat
Incorporating a simple diet that is easy to digest is best, as well as foods that transform damp and phlegm:
daikon, mushrooms, onions, radish, seaweeds,
turnips, watercress
fennel, flaxseed
cardamom, cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger,
horseradish, thyme
Foods that treat qi deficiency should be incorporated to prevent further formation of phlegm

Foods to avoid:

sugar and sweets
red meat
peanuts, tofu, miso, soy products
greasy, fatty, oily, fried foods
wheat, oats
*Avoid overeating

Incorporate foods that clear heat and nourish lungs:
soups and congees help soothe lung heat
apples, cantaloupe, peaches, pears, strawberry
watercress and white fungus (most effective);
asparagus, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower,
chard, daikon, mushrooms, radish, seaweeds
mung beans
green tea, peppermint tea

Foods to avoid:

warming foods
coffee, alcohol
lamb, chicken, beef, trout, salmon
garlic, cinnamon, ginger

Lung Phlegm-Heat Lung Yin Deficiency
Incorporate foods that clear heat and transform phlegm:
asparagus, daikon, radish, red seaweed,
grapefruit, lemons, pears, tangerines
millet and rice
green tea, peppermint tea, lemon tea

Foods to avoid:

sugar and sweets
greasy, fatty, oily, fried foods
red meat
wheat, oats
coffee, alcohol

Incorporate foods that are slightly cooling and neutral to supplement and nourish lung yin:
seaweed, string bean, white fungus
apple, banana, honeydew melon, orange, peach,
pear, tangerine, watermelon
chicken broth, clams, egg, oysters, pork
almonds, almond, milk, flaxseed, peanuts
pine nuts, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds
cottage cheese, cow’s milk, farmer’s cheese,
butter (careful, don’t use dairy in excess, or if
spleen qi deficiency exists)
milk with honey(folk remedy)

Foods to avoid:

hot spices like basil, chili, cinnamon, cloves,
garlic, ginger
coffee, alcohol, cigarettes
Careful with bitter, aromatic, and warming foods, as they tend to be drying

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[1]“Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.” Available From: resources/ publications/aag/chronic.htm, 2009.
[2] Ward, BW, et al., “Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: A 2012 Update,” Preventing Chronic Disease, 2014.

Article Resources:
Leggett, Daverick, Helping Ourselves: Guide to Traditional Chinese Food Energetics. Meridian Press, 1994
Kastner, Joerg, Chinese Hutrition Therapy: Dietetics in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Thieme, 2004
Pitchford, Paul, Eating with Whole Foods: Asian Traditions and Modern Nutrition. North Atlantic Books, 2002

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